Hoeing, weeding, irrigation and desuckering must get priority in the plains of India, where this is the best season for roses, and the rose gardens are in full bloom. Light hoeing is good which must not get deeper than 5 cm below the surface; otherwise the rose roots may be damaged. In the early winter recommended doses of chemical fertilizers must be applied, and to be incorporated with the soil properly.
Early winter is also the best time for planting of new rose plants, however, application of chemical fertilizer to these plants may be avoided in the first year. Watering in the rose beds to be done twice a week in November, while in December and January irrigate the beds once a week. In Hybrid Tea roses disbudding of the additional buds must be done at early stage. After the first flush of flowering is over, another dose of organic manure must be applied to each plant.
Care should be taken against the attack of white ants from the soil, and the powdery mildew which appear on leaves. In higher hills, where the winter is severe, the rose bushes require adequate care. It is advised to protect the young plants from heavy snow and the base of the established plants are to be covered by mound of earth and the plant tops with hay and straw. Another practice is to cut the roses back to 40 to 45 cm after the first killing frost.
The frost affected young shoots, buds and leaves must be removed. In pot plants during early winter recommended quantity of chemical fertilizer to be added and covered with soil and daily watering is needed. In December and January pot plants will require irrigation on alternate days. Hoeing, weeding and removal of suckers and application of insecticide and fungicide must get attention.
It is another very attractive season for roses with second flush of the blooms. Dormant eyes start swelling and burst forth into growth all over the plants. Bushes throw out vigorous shoots and this tendency in growth must be utilized for making the plant symmetrical and balanced. Rose bushes require good protection from powdery mildew and white ants in this season.
Suckers and dead blooms are to be removed on a regular basis. Seed pods (hips) should not be allowed to form. Schedule for hoeing, weeding and irrigation must be allowed in time. Application of balanced fertilizer or well rotten cow dung manure during the last week of February will be beneficial.
Rose plants require constant care and attention for proper growth and flowering. The cultural operations like pruning, manuring, hoeing, weeding and spraying of insecticides and fungicides if not done properly in time, the rose bushes will affected very badly and will produce only a few inferior flowers and the plant will look awkward. Such neglected plants can be renovated by transplanting them during planting time of roses, in a well dug out and well prepared beds enriched with nutrients.
While transplanting, the bushes are to be appropriately pruned, and all unwanted shoots, roots and leaves are to be removed. It should be kept in mind that rose bushes are very selective in their feeding and each type of plant needs plant food in slightly different proportion. All cultural operation should be followed adequately and timely to get the best renovated bushes.
Reconditioning of rose beds is also necessary when the plants are grown for several years continuously in the samp beds or rose gardens. Rose bushes are unable to produce good growth in such beds or gardens, which become "crop-sick". Frequent crop~ rotation is not possible in rose gardens, since these are perennial plants and some plants are grown in the same plot for fifteen years or more. Something needs to be done to the beds as a whole.
It is ideal to take out all the plants and the soils of such a bed to a depth of 30 cm. These soils are to be replaced with a good heavy loamy, virgin topsoil. The bed is to be dug by several turnings with heavy dressing of bone meal and manure. The new plants or same uprooted rose plants can be planted in the prepared beds after proper pruning. If this is not enough for reconditioning of plants, green manuring in the rose beds is also suggested.
For rejuvenation of neglected old plants and old rose beds, soon after monsoon and prior to the time of annual pruning a trench of 30 cm deep at least 3 cm away from the base of the plant is to be dug and allow it to dry and pulverized, and the soil should be mixed with 20 litres capacity bucket of FYM or half a bucket of activated sludge or decomposed cow dung and should be followed by copious irrigation.
The plants must get usual pruning and normal fertilizer dose after pruning. The rose bushes will show sign of picking up vigor. According to him, while digging the trench around the plant, rejuvenation takes place through root pruning, which encourages the growth of many small roots, and the root in turn take up nutrients from the soil and manure and restore the original productiveness of the rose bush.
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1. Roses like intense light and moderate weather conditions
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