Science and Reference Articles
Molecules with specific activity
- ...e of other hormones, especially ACTH and prolactin. However in terms of in vivo activity it is clear that the GHRPs do release ACTH and prolactin in t...
Effects on efficacy endpoints
- ...en after several hours a long-term down-regulation of GH secretion. We have published the only comparison of different patterns of GHRP exposure on lo...
Functional activation of cloned cells
- ...r human embryonic kidney fibroblasts (HEK-293). Both cell types do not express detectable endogenous GHS-Rs. Binding and functional activation assays ...
Clinical evaluation in humans
- ...e second phase, we concentrated on the isolation of GHS-R related sequences from lower vertebrates. Interestingly, GHS-R related sequences were indeed...
Regulation of synthesis and secretion
- ...P receptor in several animal species including man. In spite of the efficacy and relative specificity of GHRPs for the stimulation of GH release, and ...
Measurement of intracellular calcium
- ...lated rat somatotrophs, GHRP-6 evoked dual-phase increases in Ca; an initial transient increase due to intracellular Ca release and a second longer la...
Positive effect on human adenoma cells
- ...er preliminary report. The effect observed on ACTH release was actually greater than that seen after CRH stimulation on cells derived from the same ad...
Neurones are neuroendocrine cells
- ...ne cells (e.g. the tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurones) and many non-neuroendocrine cells. Thus, it was first necessary to determine whether the cell...
Acute effects on feeding behaviour
- ...trations which are higher than in the peripheral circulation it is not clear whether the arcuate NPY cells are true neurosecretory adenohypophysiotrop...
A model of pituitary desensitization
- ...ntal procedure, and animal specie. However, GHRP-6 was found more efficient in primates than in rat, dog or farm animals. Walker et al. demonstrated t...
Enhancement of hormone release
- ...xarelin injection; SRIH levels in HPB did not change throughout the study; the magnitude of GHRH increase after acute hexarelin administration was sim...
Fluctuations are organized into pulses
- ... organized into discrete secretory pulses and long periods of secretory quiescence. Alterations in GH pulsatility are seen in a variety of physiologic...
Hormonal therapy in obesity
- ...H secretion is enhanced during fasting, in obese individuals, spontaneous GH secretion is attenuated and the GH response to all tested stimuli (hypogl...
Building automated systems in aircrafts
- ...d the demanding situations. If we talk about vehicle guidance and control with control engineers, they may look at the same thing from a different per...
Latest "Chemistry" Articles
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What is a prebiotic and what does it have in to do with honey
(...) Consequently, FAO defined a 'prebiotic' as "a non-viable food component that confers a health benefit on the host associated with modulation of the microbiota." The meanings of the terms used in this definition were specified as follows:
'component': not an organism or drug; a substance that can be characterised chemically, and which, in most cases, will be a food grade component;
'health benefit': measurable and not due to absorption of the component into the bloodstream or due to the component acting alone, and over-riding any adverse effects;
'modulation' – demonstration that the sole presence of the component and the formulation in which it is delivered change the composition or activities of the microbiota in the target host. Mechanisms of modulation might include fermentation, receptor blockage or other actions. (...)
What health benefits do prebiotics have
(...) There are a number of desirable bacteria in the colon including species of lactobacillus and bifidobacteria which have been linked to a number of health benefits both within the digestive tract and in other organs of the body. Researchers have suggested that these bacteria protect the host by competing with bacterial or fungal pathogens for available nutrients and space and modulating the immune system. In addition, it has been reported that some short chain fatty acids (SCFA) including acetic, propionic and butyric acids are released during the fermentation of the prebiotic, and can serve as an energy source for the mucosal cells. (...)
How to understand honey as a prebiotic
(...) This research provided promising results with respect to the growth-promoting and prebiotic activity of honey on bifidobacteria, but did not include a study of the effects on lessdesirable intestinal bacteria, nor attempt to quantify the prebiotic potential. Consequently, additional data are required before the anticipated benefits identified can be reliably estimated.
The effect of American honeys from sourwood, alfalfa and sage on the growth and activity of five strains of human intestinal bifidobacteria was studied by Shin at al. (...)
Is crystallisation changing the qualities of honey
(...) In industry settings crystallised honey is heated, but during heating hydroxylmethylfurfural (HMF) is formed. HMF is a major honey quality factor and is an indicator of honey freshness and exposure to heating. In fresh honeys there is a minimal amount of HMF but levels increase upon storage, depending on the pH of honey and on the storage temperature. (...)
What types of carbohydrates and enzymes are there in honey
Shin reported that the oligosaccharides in honey are derived from the action of honeybee alpha-D-glucosidase which catalyses the transfer of alpha-Dglucopyranosyl groups from sucrose to an acceptor carbohydrate, and which thus results in formation of fructooligosaccharides and a variety of other oligosaccharides in varying amounts. Using an activated charcoal method of oligosaccharide extraction, Morales found variations in the higher oliogosaccharide compositions of ten different honeys.
Honey contains small amounts of enzymes that are introduced into honey by bees during their honey production process. (...)
What are the main qualities of honey
(...) In 1997 Jelly Bush honey became the first and only honey currently registered as a therapeutic agent in Australia. The trade name for this honey is "Medihoney", and a number of products using this honey are registered with the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) for wound healing.
Elsewhere, honey is also listed for use as an antiseptic dressing to promote healing of wounds, burns and skin ulcers, a topical antibacterial agent for the treatment of acne and other skin infections, a topical antibacterial and moisturising agent for the treatment of atopic eczema, a topical antifungal agent for the treatment of tinea, an antiseptic salve for conjunctivitis and blepharitis, an antibacterial agent and rehydrating agent for the treatment of gastroenteritis, and an antibacterial agent and healing-promoting agent for the treatment of dyspepsia and peptic ulcers. (...)
Development of absorbable peptides
(...) The latter have to face the additional problem of how to conveniently deliver their peptide analogues which are poorly absorbed by the oral route. One of the reasons why peptides are, with few exceptions, not absorbable orally is because of their vulnerability to proteases and peptidases present in the gastro-intestinal tract. In an attempt to minimize this problem, we developed a series of "impervious peptides", so-called because they are poor substrates to peptidases and proteases. (...)
Molecules with specific activity
(...) In ZDF rats we found that a GHRP analogue and hGH both stimulated body weight gain. We expected that hGH would worsen the diabetic state, which it did. The dramatic diabetogenic effect of GHRP was a surprise. (...)
Measurement of intracellular calcium
(...) Studies of rat and sheep cells have respectively shown that GHRP-6 and GHRP-2 depolarize the cell membrane leading to the opening of these channels. Since this depolarization can only be recorded with the nystatin-perforated patch clamp configuration (which does not disturb intracellular systems), this impHes that an intact second messenger signalling systems are required for ion channel function. GHRP-2 increases voltage-gated T- and L- type Ca current. (...)
All of Life Is Chemistry
(...) I would like to give you examples of the "chemistry of life."
If you want to learn how the "life works," you need to read this article and see what's going on in the body, every second of our life.
Why do we need to know the "chemistry of life"? If we know how everything "works" in the human organism, we can live a life of health and balance. (...)
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