Science and Reference Articles
Development of absorbable peptides
- ...e discoverer of the original GHRP series has reviewed their history. Other excellent reviews of this new class of GH Secretagogues have been published...
Molecules with specific activity
- ...e of other hormones, especially ACTH and prolactin. However in terms of in vivo activity it is clear that the GHRPs do release ACTH and prolactin in t...
Effects on efficacy endpoints
- ...en after several hours a long-term down-regulation of GH secretion. We have published the only comparison of different patterns of GHRP exposure on lo...
Functional activation of cloned cells
- ...r human embryonic kidney fibroblasts (HEK-293). Both cell types do not express detectable endogenous GHS-Rs. Binding and functional activation assays ...
Clinical evaluation in humans
- ...e second phase, we concentrated on the isolation of GHS-R related sequences from lower vertebrates. Interestingly, GHS-R related sequences were indeed...
Regulation of synthesis and secretion
- ...P receptor in several animal species including man. In spite of the efficacy and relative specificity of GHRPs for the stimulation of GH release, and ...
Measurement of intracellular calcium
- ...lated rat somatotrophs, GHRP-6 evoked dual-phase increases in Ca; an initial transient increase due to intracellular Ca release and a second longer la...
Positive effect on human adenoma cells
- ...er preliminary report. The effect observed on ACTH release was actually greater than that seen after CRH stimulation on cells derived from the same ad...
Neurones are neuroendocrine cells
- ...ne cells (e.g. the tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurones) and many non-neuroendocrine cells. Thus, it was first necessary to determine whether the cell...
Acute effects on feeding behaviour
- ...trations which are higher than in the peripheral circulation it is not clear whether the arcuate NPY cells are true neurosecretory adenohypophysiotrop...
A model of pituitary desensitization
- ...ntal procedure, and animal specie. However, GHRP-6 was found more efficient in primates than in rat, dog or farm animals. Walker et al. demonstrated t...
Enhancement of hormone release
- ...xarelin injection; SRIH levels in HPB did not change throughout the study; the magnitude of GHRH increase after acute hexarelin administration was sim...
Fluctuations are organized into pulses
- ... organized into discrete secretory pulses and long periods of secretory quiescence. Alterations in GH pulsatility are seen in a variety of physiologic...
Hormonal therapy in obesity
- ...H secretion is enhanced during fasting, in obese individuals, spontaneous GH secretion is attenuated and the GH response to all tested stimuli (hypogl...
Building automated systems in aircrafts
- ...d the demanding situations. If we talk about vehicle guidance and control with control engineers, they may look at the same thing from a different per...
Latest "Engineering" Articles
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A few characteristics of the work system designer
(...) This relates to the by far largest part of cognitive processing activity going on in our brain at all times. The conscious cognitive processing, which is often called the controlled one, is time-consuming but very effective, too, and the only effective one, if higher level behaviour of deliberations is demanded which cannot be provided by the automatic one. As a consequence, this article is proposing that artificial software agents should be furnished with hybrid architectures of that kind layering two kinds of agents, reactive subsystems forming a basic layer for the automatic cognitive processing and deliberative agents in a layer on top for the controlled cognitive processing. (...)
What is conventional automation
(...) This is exclusively left to the human part. Therefore, only the motivational contexts of the human operator and the work system designer are the driving mechanisms to operate the work system. The designer, based on his/her motivational contexts, tries to imagine the motivational contexts of the human operator while operating the work system subject to the work objective. (...)
Concept of conventionally automated functions in the work process
The operator might be unaware of discrepancies between sub-task activities of automated functions or/and the prime goal necessities or even of his/her insufficiency to adapt to this inadequacy. This is just the opposite of what was intended by the introduction of automation. This is illustrating the principle effects for a pilot's work site, although not based on real data. (...)
How to implement cognitive automation in work systems
(...) How this can be achieved by a more systematic design strategy will become evident in the following. First, though, we shall clarify what cognitive automation means in distinction to conventional automation before describing the benefits of it and the design requirements to make use of it in a work system. Also in case of cognitive automation, we also have to deal with both ways of automation, ACUs as operator-controlled or built-in automation. (...)
Cognition is not confined to humans as part of the operating force
(...) From experience we know we can accomplish more in a co-operating group as one could accomplish with the same number of people, who refrain from co-operation. This can be exploited in the context of work systems by means of cognitive teaming. Co-operation can appear in different forms, but will always be based on a common goal or at least a compatible one under all circumstances. (...)
Adequate tools and support systems for satisfying work results
Eventually, in the last one of the succession of steadily upgraded vehicle designs, the capability of goal-directed behaviour based on explicitly stored desires is incorporated. It has already been perfectly illustrated by means of fascinatingly simple featuring of the crucial design steps how to accomplish the synthetic task of providing artificial cognition. His article is bridging thereby the disciplines of neuroscience, computer science, and engineering. (...)
Talking about the concept of work and its implications
(...) Certainly, professional work will play a key role in the following discussions, but by far not an exclusive one. Work is a dynamic process, the so-called work process. The work process follows a certain agenda of procedures and actions based on assessments of the current world situation and, if necessary or explicitly wanted, on incidental deliberations. (...)
The operating force is the most important component of the work system
(...) Traditionally, the operating force has been exclusively human. The human element as an autonomous entity warrants that the operating force can make use of this basic capacity to be principally capable, if wanted, to create or modify the work objective independent from any external agency. Therefore, we can claim that a work system is an autonomous system, in principal. (...)
The basic work site settings are not part of the productive work process
(...) Therefore, both, whether your friend gave you a courtesy ride, or if you were using public transportation, this would not be an operation-supporting means of the work system you are operating while being transported.
In fact, you would have been the work object, i.e. (...)
What is engineering of work system development
(...) In fact, it is the common systems engineering practice to start a development from the operational user requirements which will be condensed in the work objective and the environmental conditions under which the work system is supposed to operate. Thus, the remaining potential items for design enhancements are the:
• operation-supporting means, and
• augmentation of the operating force.
Enhancements concerning the supply will not be investigated in this article. (...)
Building automated systems in aircrafts
In addition to this list, the demand for information and communication may be added, especially in networked scenarios. Billings classifies the various types of automation serving the various requirements into
1. control automation 2. (...)
Concept of operation in military high performance aircraft
(...) Mainly these were inertial navigation and radio navigation. More recently satellite navigation technologies came along. While in former days until the 1970ies it was the duty of a dedicated person in the cockpit, i. (...)
Automatic systems for guidance and control in automotive vehicles
(...) A typical example for a warning system is that which guides the driver's attention to a vehicle on the adjacent lane close enough that the started lane change would lead to a collision. Systems for automatic enhancement of the vehicle's dynamic behaviour are for instance the ESC (Electronic Stability Control) which combines the ABS (Anti-lock Braking System) and traction control. Systems of that kind are automatically turned on when the engine is started. (...)
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