Clinical evaluation in humans
- ...e second phase, we concentrated on the isolation of GHS-R related sequences from lower vertebrates. Interestingly, GHS-R related sequences were indeed...
Regulation of synthesis and secretion
- ...P receptor in several animal species including man. In spite of the efficacy and relative specificity of GHRPs for the stimulation of GH release, and ...
Positive effect on human adenoma cells
- ...er preliminary report. The effect observed on ACTH release was actually greater than that seen after CRH stimulation on cells derived from the same ad...
Neurones are neuroendocrine cells
- ...ne cells (e.g. the tuberoinfundibular dopamine neurones) and many non-neuroendocrine cells. Thus, it was first necessary to determine whether the cell...
Acute effects on feeding behaviour
- ...trations which are higher than in the peripheral circulation it is not clear whether the arcuate NPY cells are true neurosecretory adenohypophysiotrop...
A model of pituitary desensitization
- ...ntal procedure, and animal specie. However, GHRP-6 was found more efficient in primates than in rat, dog or farm animals. Walker et al. demonstrated t...
Fluctuations are organized into pulses
- ... organized into discrete secretory pulses and long periods of secretory quiescence. Alterations in GH pulsatility are seen in a variety of physiologic...
Hormonal therapy in obesity
- ...H secretion is enhanced during fasting, in obese individuals, spontaneous GH secretion is attenuated and the GH response to all tested stimuli (hypogl...
How to understand the limbic system
- ...ational contexts. It more or less dictates the first cognitive reaction, and after loop-like activations sweeping through numbers of brain structures,...
Leukemia types and latest treatments
- ...g of the scientific basis of leukemia. Thousands of genetic changes that are critical to leukemia development have been documented, and probably m...
Latest "Medical" Articles
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The superficial veins and the great saphenous vein
(...) Fascial sheaths also enclose the anterior accessory saphenous vein in the thigh and the small saphenous vein in the calf.
The GSV lies posteriorly at knee level and then passes up the thigh and through the foramen ovale and the femoral triangle to join the common femoral vein. It crosses the superficial external pudendal artery at the lower border of the foramen ovale. (...)
Microcirculation and the veins of the lower limb
(...) However, they differ from arteries in a number of important details. The endothelium of the intima, secretes factor VIII, prostacyclins and fibrinolytic activator. Recurrent spontaneous thrombosis occurs in patients with inherited or acquired abnormalities in some of these mechanisms. (...)
The small saphenous vein and the perforating veins
Ulceration on the lateral surface of the ankle is almost always associated with incompetence of the small saphenous vein. The great and small saphenous veins have relatively thick muscle coats, but the walls of their tributaries are thin and more likely to dilate and become varicose.
The perforating veins are those veins, other than the long and short saphenous, which penetrate the deep fascia, passing from superficial to deep. (...)
Nasal reconstruction surgery: Anatomic and aesthetic considerations
(...) The caudal edge of the nasal bones overrides and attaches to the upper lateral cartilages, suspending them above the nasal cavity.
The interior nasal valve is the opening between your caudal end of the upper lateral cartilage and also the nasal septum. The external nasal valve is the region caudal to this, comprising the nasal alae laterally and the septum and columella medially. (...)
Lip reconstruction surgery: Restoration of oral competence and contour
(...) The philtral columns extend downward to meet the vermilion-cutaneous junction (also known as the ‘white roll') of the upper lip. Cupid's bow may be the portion of the vermilion-cutaneous junction located in the lower philtrum.
The tubercle is the fleshy middle the main upper lip from which the vermilion extends bilaterally to satisfy the commissures. (...)
Upper and lower lip reconstruction surgery techniques
(...) Primary closure might be achieved for males by advancing adjacent lip and cheek tissue.
For full-thickness defects, the choice of reconstructive option depends on the size the defect. Defects of one-quarter to one-third of the upper lip can be closed primarily. (...)
Lip reconstructive surgery using the Karapandzic flap
Careful dissection is needed to identify and preserve the labial arteries and buccal nerve branches. The flaps are rotated medially to shut the defect, and a stay suture is positioned after meticulous reapproximation from the vermilion border. The defect is closed in three-layers approximating mucosa, muscle and skin. (...)
Techniques for bone reconstruction in mandibular surgery
(...) In addition, rigid internal fixation eliminates the need for external or intermaxillary fixation (IMF), maintains the right dental relationships, reduces operative some time and can provide effective condylar replacement.
Nonvascularized Alloplastic Bone Grafts
Allografts for mandible reconstruction are mainly made up of freeze-dried bone. Such bone grafts are just suitable for small defects from the mandible where the continuity from the mandible is intact. (...)
Reanimation from the paralyzed face: Causes of facial paralysis
(...) You should remember that the extracranial facial nerve is really a purely motor nerve; therefore extracranial paralysis shouldn't involve decreased lacrimation (superficial petrosal nerve), changes in hearing (nerve to stapedius) or changes in taste (chorda tympani).
It is important to evaluate the patient carefully, in order to look for the cause and extent of paralysis and the status of the muscles involved. A history is obtained, focusing on the onset and duration of weakness. (...)
Frontal sinus fracture: Clinical presentation and radiographic evaluation
(...) Radiographic evaluation, in particular computed tomography (CT), is clearly the most valuable diagnostic tool in frontal sinus fractures. CT clearly depicts fractures, the quantity of depression, and the nature from the items in the sinus cavity, adjacent brain and overlying soft tissue.
Fine axial sections are helpful for evaluating anterior and posterior table fractures of the frontal sinus and intracranial injuries. (...)
Orbital fractures: Reconstructive surgical approach
The tubercle is located 1 cm inferior and 3 mm posterior to the frontozygomatic suture. Lockwood's ligament is actually a hammock-like system that suspends the globe. It has contributions from muscular septae, Tenon's capsule and the lower eyelid retractors. (...)
Techniques used in orbital repair are influenced by the severity of the fracture
(...) In the "skin only" subcilliary approach, the orbicularis muscle is divided at the level of the infraorbital rim, along with the orbital periostium. This variation of the subciliary approach is prone to skin flap necrosis, hematoma, ecchymosis and ectropion. Therefore, the skin/muscle flap techniques are preferred. (...)
Eyelid reconstruction: Surgical excision of eyelid tumors
Eyelid layers have been arbitrarily divided into the anterior and posterior lamellae. The anterior lamella offers the skin and orbicularis oculi muscle while the posterior lamella offers the tarsus, eyelid retractors and conjunctiva.
The tarsal plates contain vertically oriented Meibomian glands that exit on the lid margin. (...)
Eyelid lesions and lower eyelid reconstruction
Lower Eyelid Reconstruction
Partial-thickness defects from the lower eyelid may involve just skin or a combination of skin and orbicularis muscle. The reconstructive options for these defects include primary closure, local flap, full-thickness graft and split-thickness graft. Small defects usually can be closed primarily thereby avoiding excessive tension that can lead to ectropion (eversion of the eyelid). (...)
Upper eyelid reconstruction: Skin grafts or local flaps
Full-thickness defects from the upper eyelid are addressed by primary closure, a semicircular flap or the Cutler-Beard flap. These methods are the same methods for correction of lower eyelid defects. However, because constant blinking causes significant surface interaction between your upper eyelid and the cornea, inner irregularities in the upper eyelid are less forgiving. (...)
Operative technique for nasal reconstruction surgery
The relatively mobile skin from the nasal dorsum and sidewalls can be used in an average V-Y advancement fashion for small defects. The bilobe and rhomboid flaps can be used to address small defects from the nasal dorsum and sidewall, but in practice often generate distorting dog ears which must be well planned so they won't distort the standard contours of the nasal surface. The skin from the glabellar region can be mobilized in an advancement, V-Y, or transposition fashion to address defects from the upper third of the dorsum or sidewall. (...)
Lip lesions: Vermilion and commissure reconstruction
(...) It forms the transition zone between skin and mucosa of the inner mouth. Defects involving the vermilion ranges from superficial, such as leukoplakia in which there is limited compromise from the integument, to significant, in which tissue deficit extends to deeper muscle and mucosal tissue. Although small defects of the vermilion can be primarily closed or left alone to heal by secondary intention, larger defects require reconstruction. (...)
Facial nerve and facial reanimation: Superficial musculoaponeurotic
(...) In the temporal region, the facial nerve travels inside the temporoparietal fascia. Thus, it might be apparent why facelifts are performed in the subcutaneous or sub-SMAS planes.
Span of the Extracranial Facial Nerve
The facial nerve enters the face upon exiting the stylomastoid foramen. (...)
Abbe flap used in plastic reconstructive surgery of the lips
(...) Thus, how big the oral aperture remains the same as if the lip defect is closed primarily. The goal is to recruit enough unaffected lip tissue to balance the discrepancy in lip lengths after a medium-sized excision.
A wedge-shaped pedicle flap is harvested in the opposite lip. (...)
Facial paralysis: Nerve grafting and nerve transfer
The classic teaching is that peripheral nerve axons regrow at a rate of about 1 mm daily. However, this does not look at the time required for the reinnervated muscle to regain tone and function. For most patients, return of facial movement takes 1-2 years depending on the entire graft. (...)
Frontal sinus fractures complications include meningitis
(...) The sinus invades the frontal bone by about 5 many years of age and slowly grows to achieve adult amount of 6-7 ml by late adolescence.
The sinus is roughly pyramid-shaped with its apex inferiorly and it is base superiorly. An intrasinus septum is generally present and also the distal borders from the sinus often spread to form an irregular pattern, making mucosal removal difficult during frontal sinus obliteration. (...)
Anterior and posterior table fractures: Clinical approach
(...) 3 mm titanium adaptation plates is enough. Plating is preferable over wiring because wiring has a tendency to flatten the standard arched contour of the frontal bone. In the management of severely comminuted fractures with bone loss, an attempt is made to achieve maximal bone preservation. (...)
Orbital fractures diagnosis and graft material for reconstruction
(...) The force is passed on to the thin orbital floor which cannot adequately resist the force and fractures.
A wide range of associated ocular and periocular injuries have been reported in the literature (2-93%). Interestingly, the reported rate of associated injury is much lower for nonophthalmologist (2-25%) compared to ophthamologists (9-93%). (...)
Individual life history curve and life extension
(...) This phase is characterized by a high degree of sensual activity, excellent health, intellectual and emotional growth, physical strength, and general vigor.
The third phase of life is "middle age," the period between approximately 40 and 60 years of age. This phase is characterized by a slow, but progressive, degenerative decline in physiological function. (...)
Comparison between biological and chronological aging
Indeed, there are certain progeric diseases in which biological aging seems to progress at an accelerated rate. People afflicted with such diseases suffer a broad spectrum of the symptoms normally found in people twice their chronological age. Thus, one might say that the goal of life extension is, "increasing chronological aging by decreasing biological aging. (...)
Innate immune system cells and their functions
Microorganisms engulfed by macrophages can be destroyed when they encounter a wide range of toxic intracellular molecules produced by macrophages. Some of these molecules include superoxide anion, hydroxyl radicals, hypochlorous acid, nitric oxide, plasma proteins and peptides, lysozyme, arachidonic acid metabolites, nucleotide metabolites, and cytokines. Numerous tissue-specific cells are of macrophage lineage and function to procedure and present antigen. (...)
Immune system functional components and antibody mediated immunity
Immunoglobulin structure. Immunoglobulins are glycoproteins composed of 4 polypeptide chains (two light and two heavy chains), linked by disulfide bonds that permit the chains to form a bilaterally symmetric immunoglobulin molecule. The N terminus of each chain possesses a variable domain, which, via the use of the hypervariable complementarity-determining regions, binds antigen. (...)
Venom skin tests and how they are conducted
(...) 4% phenol.
Following reconstitution, the full-strength venom extract is diluted in a serial fashion to achieve the concentrations required for skin testing. Of note, the manufacturer's instructions concerning the storage of the lyophilized supplies (don't freeze) and storage times before expiration ought to always be observed. (...)
Immune system and function of lymphocytes
(...) Dozens of monoclonal antibodies have been produced that react with cell surface antigens, enabling identification of B- and T-cell subsets as well as distinction of cells by their stages of differentiation.
Cell surface molecules identified by monoclonal antibodies and subsequently cloned are known as clusters of differentiation (CD) and are numbered sequentially. For example, CD19 is associated with mature B cells, whereas CD3 signifies activated T cells. (...)
Phylogenetic development of the immune system and ontogenetic improvement
In mature mammals, the main lymphoid organs are the thymus and bone marrow. During fetal development the liver is one of the main organs of lymphoid improvement. In early fetal development, lymphocyte precursors are derived from the fetal yolk sac. (...)
Stinging insect allergy: reactions as pain and burning
(...) Infection at the website of the sting is quite uncommon and takes more than 48 hours to develop (usually after excoriation of the site). Large nearby reactions aren't usually dangerous, but in the head and neck area they could trigger delayed localized compression of the airway, particularly in the situation of a sting on the tongue or pharynx.
Systemic reactions may cause any one or more of the signs and signs and symptoms of anaphylaxis. (...)
Chemoprotective effects of anthocyanin found in berries
The reported mechanisms for those cell culture systems could be categorized as directly scavenging ROS, increasing the oxygen absorbing capacity of cells, stimulating activation of phase II enzymes through antioxidant response element pathway, developing anthocyanin-DNA copigmentation complex possible against oxidative damage of DNA, reducing the formation of DNA adducts, and chelating metals and binding proteins.
On the contrary, anthocyanidins produced ROS, showing pro-oxidant activities, as apoptosis inducers in HL-60 cells instead of the antioxidant activities of anthocyanidins in the inhibition of TPAinduced cell transformation in mouse skin JB6 cells. In later studies, anthocyanins were found to induce apoptosis through reactive oxygen species-mediated mitochondrial pathway. (...)
Anthocyanins induce apoptosis in several cancer cell types
(...) This induction of apoptosis appeared to be related to activation of caspases.
Inflammatory cells are implicated in the tumor microenvironment and play a crucial role in tumor development and progression. The microenvironment of many human cancers is rich in cytokines, chemokines, and inflammatory enzymes. (...)
Daily intake of anthocyanins can protect against different cancers
Another investigation from the same laboratory was conducted on colon caner chemoprevention of black raspberry. Fifty subjects with colorectal cancer andor polyps consumed LRBs daily for 2–4 weeks before the surgery.
Biopsies of normal and tumor/polyp tissues are collected for biomarker analysis before and after berry treatment. (...)
Ursolic acid inhibits the proliferation of various tumor cell lines
In B16F-10 melanoma cells, ursolic acid at non-cytotoxic concentrations resulted in apoptosis accompanied by upregulation of the tumor suppressor gene p53 and caspase-3 and down-regulation of anti-apoptotic gene Bcl-2. This decrease in NF-KB-mediated activation of Bcl-2 occurred with the inhibition of several transcription factors in the NF-KB pathway.
A reduction was seen in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1B and IL-6, and TNF-alpha and GM-CSF. (...)
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