Procedures and Therapies Articles
Chemotherapy and how it affects cells
- ...n cells divide more rapidly than the others, some rest in the G 0 phase for any brief period, whereas others bypassthe G0 phase and go into the second...
How chemotherapy affects nails
- ...position of melanin in the nail plate.
Blue discoloration of the nail plate has additionally been observed following the administration of 5-f...
Latest "Procedures and Therapies" Articles
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Hematopoietic growth factors and chemotherapy in cancer treatment
Hematopoietic growth factors have played a significant role in preventing infection in cancer patients by shortening the amount of neutropenia in those receiving chemotherapy. Patients can better tolerate the conventional treatment regimen and could have the ability to tolerate higher doses of chemotherapeutic agents, which might improve therapeutic outcomes.
Four hematopoietic growth factors happen to be approved by the FDA, and several other growth factors are being studied in many studies. (...)
Vaccine and gene therapy in various malignancies
(...) It's well tolerated due to the low toxicity. The most popular side-effect is really a local reaction in the injection site comprising erythema, pruritus, inflammation, or tenderness.
Gene treatments are a method in which new genetic material is inserted right into a patient's cell to fix an inborn genetic error in order to introduce a brand new biologic function towards the cell. (...)
Chemotherapy progress and drug development in cancer treatment
The entire process of translating the brand new knowledge gained in the bench is long and expensive. Drug development begins with buying and screening of chemical substances. Screening is performed on these compounds using animal or human cancer cells grown in vitro, transplanted animal tumors, and human xenografts. (...)
Intrahepatic chemotherapy in cancer treatment
(...) The pump should be manipulated only by qualified personnel, who should stick to the manufacturer's instructions regarding proper use.
Flow rates vary from 1 to 2 mL/day and therefore are predetermined by the manufacturer. Flow rates increase at high altitudes, with fever, with hypertension. (...)
Managing cardiotoxicity during chemotherapy treatment
(...) The utilization of the new cardiac protectant, dexrazoxane, in doxorubicin therapy for advanced breast cancer may help diminish the incidence of cardiac toxicity. In severe cases, the chemotherapeutic agents should be discontinued and supportive measures provided.
onitor the patient's cardiac function by obtaining cardiac enzymes, multigated radionuclide angiography, and electrocardiograms before and throughout treatment. (...)
Alopecia is the most common effect of chemotherapy
(...) Whenever a hair follicle enters the anagen phase, the upward growth of the new hair causes the dormant hair to shed.
Due to this growth and dormancy cycle, an ordinary person usually sheds 100 scalp hairs daily. The active hair bulbs duplicate every 12 to Twenty four hours, resulting in a regular growth of the hair shaft of 0. (...)
How chemotherapy affects nails
Management and patient education
Measure the patient's nails before chemotherapy administration. Advise the individual of potential changes in the nails and get her or him to report any changes. These usually occur 5 to 10 weeks after chemotherapy. (...)
Connection between chemotherapy and anorexia
(...) Teach the individual to weigh themselves once per week and also to report an appetite suppressant of 3 lb or more each week.
Monitor protein and albumin levels. Analyze dietary intake and instruct the individual to maintain a 3-day journal of intake. (...)
Mucositis management and patient education
(...) Rinse the mouth with warm saline or with those who are rinses. Peroxide mouthwash isn't recommended since it disturbs the standard flora of the mouth and results in overgrowth of fissures and white papillae of the tongue, resulting in candidiasis. Wear dentures only when necessary. (...)
Treating anemia as a result of intense chemotherapy
(...) Evaluate dietary intake. Let the patient to consume foods that are rich in iron, vitamins, and minerals.
Suggest nutritional or iron and nutritional vitamin supplements if required. (...)
Thrombocytopenia management during chemotherapy
(...) Use stool softeners to prevent straining, which could cause rectal tearing and bleeding. Avoid performing the Valsalva maneuver when moving or defecating. Consume a high-fiber diet and drink lots of fluids to prevent constipation. (...)
Nephrotoxicity can be a serious side effect of chemotherapy
(...) If oral those who are or citrovorum rescue is ordered, make sure the individual knows the significance of taking these medications as scheduled.
Let the patient to drink enough fluids before and after treatment. Give uroprotectants for example mesna or allopurinol to improve the crystals excretion, if ordered. (...)
Pulmonary toxicity as a result of chemotherapy
(...) The pulmonary damage brought on by bleomycin is dose-related; patients who get a cumulative dose in excess of 450 units show a greater incidence of toxicity compared to those who get a lower cumulative dose. In busulfan therapy, the busulfan lung syndrome can happen and it has an undesirable prognosis.
Dyspnea may be the cardinal characteristic of chemotherapy-induced pulmonary toxicity. (...)
Home care for cancer patients under chemotherapy
(...) Home care allows the individual active participation in and more treatments for the treatment regimen. There's also a wide perception in the lay public that hospitals aren't pleasant and safe places, especially in this current era of downsizing.
Visiting any adverse health care facility causes fatigue, and patients feel much more comfortable in their houses underneath the watchful eye of the mate. (...)
Cytokines, interferons and toxicities in chemotherapy
(...) Gamma interferon is made by T lymphocytes and natural killer cells being an integral component of the immune response.
Interferons influence the immune system by binding to some cell surface receptor and inducing a cascade of biologic events. Interferons have antiviral characteristics: they are able to protect an infected cell from invasion by another virus and may indirectly inhibit viral DNA replication, which hinders multiplication of the virus with other cells. (...)
Interleukins in chemotherapy and cancer treatment
(...) IL-2 plays a job in both humoral and cell-mediated immunity.
In 1992, a recombinant type of IL-2 was approved by the FDA for that treatment of renal cell carcinoma. In 1998, it had been approved for that treatment of adults with metastatic melanoma. (...)
Patient and family education for biotherapy in cancer treatment
(...) Patients should be provided all of the necessary materials for self-administration.
Nurses must review all possible negative effects and symptom management with patients. Patients should be reassured that most toxicities are dose-, route-, or schedule-dependent and therefore are reversible once the treatment is discontinued. (...)
Preventing chemotherapy errors for maximum patient safety
(...) The course describes a didactic content along with a clinical practicum required to prepare the nurse to look after patients undergoing chemotherapy in various settings.
Orders are verified by a minimum of two medical professionals, preferably one RN and one pharmacist. This requires a make sure of the patient's name, drug, dose calculation, route, frequency, total daily dose, and date of administration. (...)
Routes of administration for chemotherapy in cancer patients
(...) A pro-drug is really a chemical precursor of the active agent that must be changed into an energetic agent being effective. The conversion is accomplished by one or more enzymes found in the liver, tumor sites, or any other tissues. Prodrugs are viewed to supply more selective and intensive therapy for that target tumor. (...)
Minimizing contact with chemotherapeutic agents
The recommendations produced by these advisory bodies function as guidelines; institutional policies for chemotherapy handling, administration, and disposal can vary. Nurses should be acquainted with their institution's policies and operations and employ these phones minimize their exposure.
Eye contact: Immediately rinse the affected eye or eyes with copious levels of water not less than fifteen minutes. (...)
Cutaneous toxicity issues during chemotherapy
(...) The chemotherapy cutaneous reactions range from the following:
Radiation enhancement and recall
Handling hyperpigmentation during chemotherapy
Measure the patient's baseline skin ailment and evaluate their skincare regimen. Assure the individual that hyperpigmentation will resolve in time. Ask the individual about concomitant medications that is going to influence skin reactions. (...)
Nausea and vomitong as a side effect of chemotherapy
(...) It's postulated that emesis is induced by stimulation of the true vomiting center, the nucleus tractus solitarius, located in the general area of the lateral reticular formulation of the fourth ventricle. The physiologic stimulation of the TVC is mediated by neurotransmitters, including serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, and histamine. The receptor sites of these transmitters can be found in the chemoreceptor trigger zoneand the GI tract. (...)
Managing mucositis in the chemotherapy patient
Because hematologic malignancies are more common in younger patients, the result is that stomatitis often occurs in patients younger than Two decades old. Patients receiving combination chemotherapy, radiation treatment, antimicrobials, and corticosteroids are in the best risk. Patients who consume alcohol and smoke tobacco will also be at high-risk. (...)
Constipation emerged as a result of chemotherapy
Help the individual begin a daily bowel regimen. Let the patient to improve their intake of foods rich in fiber and bulk and also to drink 8 to 10 portions of fluids daily.
Warm fluids and prune juice are of help. (...)
Myelosuppression during chemotherapy for various cancers
(...) The bone marrow provides the pluripotent stem cells, the precursors towards the main blood components, including erythrocytes, leukocytes, and platelets.
Myelosuppression is caused by the destruction of those circulating progenitor cells, which depletes the amount of circulating mature blood cells. This reduction causes the blood count to decrease. (...)
Neutropenia and chemotherapy in cancer treatment
(...) In the cancer patient, infection could be life-threatening, particularly when complications for example sepsis occur. Fever may be the first and in certain cases the only real sign; therefore, other tests for example chest x-rays and cultures are essential to verify detecting infection.
The white blood cell count nadir is reached in 7 to Fourteen days; recovery occurs in 14 to 4 weeks. (...)
Why fatigue is a normal side effect of chemotherapy
Assure the individual that the fatigue is really a side-effect of the chemotherapy and doesn't indicate treatment failure. Get yourself a fatigue profile by asking concerning the patient's fatigue pattern, the start of fatigue, the impact of fatigue with their life and day to day activities, and factors that might bring about their education of fatigue. Help the individual be realistic for activity, rest, and sleep after evaluating their energy. (...)
Neurotoxicity problems during chemotherapy
(...) The blood-brain barrier determines whether a cytotoxic agent can get to the nervous system. It blocks some agents from entering the system in a cellular level.
Penetration of the CNS differs from that of the peripheral nervous system. (...)
Care for the patient receiving vesicant chemotherapy
(...) Verify for adequate blood return before proceeding using the treatment.
For peripheral lines, make sure the patency of the vein by feeling for any bruit across the venous track having a 10-mL normal saline IV push. Don't pinch the IV tubing to check on patency. (...)
Chemotherapy and how it affects cells
DNA is a vital nucleic acid made up of deoxyribose, a phosphate, and four nitrogenous bases: adenine, guanine, cytosine, and thymine. Adenine and guanine would be the purines, and cytosine and thymine would be the pyrimidines. Chemical reactions occur between your two purines as well as between your two pyrimidines, resulting in the development of the double-stranded DNA helix, which can serve as the genetic template of the cell. (...)
Short classification of some chemotherapeutic agents
(...) The amount of cells in cycle is called the development fraction. Cell cycle-specific drugs therefore lessen the growth fraction of the tumor.
Antimetabolites are synthetically formulated to imitate the naturally produced metabolites, purines, pyrimidines, or folates required for the synthesis of nucleic acids and DNA. (...)
Chemotherapy and Biologic Response Modifiers in cancer treatment
The nation's Cancer Institute's Division of Cancer Treatment Subcommittee on Biological Response Modifiers has defined BRMs as agents or approaches that affect the relationship between host and tumor by changing the host's immune reaction to tumor cells, which ends in a therapeutic effect. BRMs include mAbs, cytokines, along with other biologic agents for example tumor necrosis factor. Many BRMs they are under investigation in many studies. (...)
Immunotoxin therapy and chemotherapy in cancer treatment
The recommended dose is 9 or 18 mg/kg/day adminis-tered intravenously over Fifteen minutes for 5 consecutive days every A 3 week period. Ontak is generally well tolerated; however, negative effects include chills, fever, infection, pain, headache, flulike syndrome, dizziness, heart problems, hypotension, tachycardia, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and hypoalbuminemia.
Conjugation of mAbs to radioisotopes has both diagnostic and therapeutic applications. (...)
What chemotherapy is and how it is used in cancer treatment
Induction: This term is often used in the treatment of hematologic malignancies. It refers back to the utilization of usuallya mixture of high-dose drugs to induce an entire response when initiating a curative regimen.
Intensification: After complete remission is achieved, exactly the same agents employed for induction receive at higher doses, or different agents receive at high doses to effect a better cure rate or perhaps a longer remission. (...)
Cancer cell characteristics and how chemotherapy fights them
(...) This can be a constant percentage of the final amount of malignant cells present.
If your tumor containing 1 million cells is subjected to a drug that includes a 90% cell kill rate, the first chemotherapy dose will destroy 90%, or 900,000, of the cancer cells. The 2nd dose will kill another 90% of the remaining cells, and 10,000 cells can survive. (...)
Mitotic inhibitors and camptothecins in chemotherapy
(...) Taxanes cause mitotic arrest by forming abnormal spindle fibers and mitotic asters.
Camptothecins really are a new subcategory of cell cycle-specific drugs. They act in the S phase and inhibit topoisomerase I, a nuclear enzyme essential for maintaining DNA structure. (...)
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